Ketamine for Social Anxiety Disorder

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2018 Jan; 43(2): 325–333.

Jerome H Taylor,1,2,3,* Angeli Landeros-Weisenberger,1 Catherine Coughlin,1 Jilian Mulqueen,1 Jessica A Johnson,1 Daniel Gabriel,1 Margot O Reed,1 Ewgeni Jakubovski,1 and Michael H Bloch1,2

1Child Study Center, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
2Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
3Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
*Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Neuropsychiatry Section, 3400 Spruce Street, Gates Pavilion 10th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA, Tel: +1 267 536 9405, Fax: +1 203 907 2727, E-mail: ude.nnepu.enicidemnnep@ejrolyat


Many patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) experience inadequate symptom relief from available treatments. Ketamine is a potent N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist with a potentially novel mechanism of action for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Therefore, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial in 18 adults with DSM-5 SAD and compared the effects between intravenous ketamine (0.5 mg/kg over 40 min) and placebo (normal saline) on social phobia symptoms. Ketamine and placebo infusions were administered in a random order with a 28-day washout period between infusions. Ratings of anxiety were assessed 3-h post-infusion and followed for 14 days. We used linear mixed models to assess the impact of ketamine and placebo on anxiety symptoms. Outcomes were blinded ratings on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and self-reported anxiety on a visual analog scale (VAS-Anxiety). We also used the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to compare the proportion of treatment responders. Based on prior studies, we defined response as a greater than 35% LSAS reduction and 50% VAS-Anxiety reduction. We found ketamine resulted in a significantly greater reduction in anxiety relative to placebo on the LSAS (Time × Treatment: F9,115=2.6, p=0.01) but not the VAS-Anxiety (Time × Treatment: F10,141=0.4, p=0.95). Participants were significantly more likely to exhibit a treatment response after ketamine infusion relative to placebo in the first 2 weeks following infusion measured on the LSAS (33.33% response ketamine vs 0% response placebo, Wilcoxon signed-rank test z=2.24, p=0.025) and VAS (88.89% response ketamine vs 52.94% response placebo, Wilcoxon signed-rank test z=2.12, p=0.034). In conclusion, this proof-of-concept trial provides initial evidence that ketamine may be effective in reducing anxiety.

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